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N. Brenning, D. Lundin, T. Minea, C. Costin, C. Vitelaru, Spokes and charged particle transport in HiPIMS magnetrons, 2013 J PHYS D APPL PHYS, vol. 46, pp. 84005-84015, doi:10.1088/0022-3727/46/8/084005

 Title: Spokes and charged particle transport in HiPIMS magnetrons

Abstract: 

Two separate scientific communities are shown to have studied one common phenomenon, azimuthally rotating dense plasma structures, also called spokes, in pulsed-power E × B discharges, starting from quite different approaches. The first body of work is motivated by fundamental plasma science and concerns a phenomenon called the critical ionization velocity, CIV, while the other body of work is motivated by the applied plasma science of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). Here we make use of this situation by applying experimental observations, and theoretical analysis, from the CIV literature to HiPIMS discharges. For a practical example, we take data from observed spokes in HiPIMS discharges and focus on their role in charged particle transport, and in electron energization. We also touch upon the closely related questions of how they channel the cross-B discharge current, how they maintain their internal potential structure and how they influence the energy spectrum of the ions? New particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisional simulations that shed light on the azimuthal drift and expansion of the spokes are also presented.

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